Science Reviews - Biology

Humara Naz Majeed, Sumaira Shaheen, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor. Glycosyltransferases: Unraveling Molecular Insights and Biotechnological Implications

Posted on: Apr 25, 2024, 14:42:53

Description: Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are present in almost all living organisms; plants, animals and microorganisms. GTs transfer sugar molecule from nucleotide sugars to a wide range of molecules including hormones, secondary metabolites, biotic and abiotic chemicals. When glycosyltransferases add a sugar moiety in any molecule, the hydrophilicity of that molecule changes and thus alter the chemical properties of the molecule. This phenomenon is vital for appropriate working of living organisms. For the first time, X-ray structure of bacteriophage T4-glucosyltransferase was reported in 1994. In bacteria, GTs play essential roles in various biological processes such as cell wall biosynthesis, surface glycosylation and virulence factor production. The point mutation as well as the domain-swapping has been reported in Bacteria. The sequence change as well as the whole cells has been engineered in bacteria too. GTs play very important role in survival, growth, development, metabolism, detoxification, insecticide resistance, chitin formation, chemosensation, defense and immunity, involved in various signaling pathways, etc. In plants, glycosyltransferase enzymes play essential role in biosynthesis of cell wall components, secondary metabolites, and signaling molecules. GTs are involved in the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, leading to the formation of glycosidic bonds. GTs modify flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids, etc. with sugar residues and alter the solubility, stability, and bioactivity of these compounds and regulate the plant defense mechanism and interaction with insects, microorganisms and other organisms. GTs have direct impact on plant homeostasis. Site directed mutagenesis (SDM) in UGTs or GTs cause a change in substrate specificity and produce increased or total loss in the catalytic activity GTs.

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