Science Reviews - Biology is an international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes high-quality reviews and research articles across various disciplines of biology, including molecular biology, genetics, cell biology, ecology, and others.
In addition to the online version, Science Reviews - Biology is also available in print, providing a tangible format for readers and researchers. The journal is printed in Canada and can be found at the Library of Congress, Library and Archives Canada, and other locations, further expanding the reach and accessibility of our published content. Authors of articles printed in Science Reviews receive a complimentary printed copy of the journal with their articles delivered by regular mail.
Open Access. Science Reviews is published quarterly and follows the Open Access publication model, enabling free and unrestricted access to published articles. The article processing charges are modest ($500) and are paid by authors or their institutions.
Free publications. Science Reviews is published every quarter. To encourage high-quality reviews, research, and publications, we publish free of charge in each issue one exceptional article, selected by the editorial board. From time to time, we also offer the winner the position of our paid editor.
Rapid Publication Decisions. Typically, manuscripts are reviewed and the first decision is provided to the authors approximately 3 weeks after the submission of the manuscript.
Rapid Online Publication. Articles accepted for publication immediately appear online in the form of a Rapid version. After the release of the quarterly issue, the Rapid version is replaced by a permanent, final version.
Printed journal. Authors of articles printed in the Science Reviews receive a free printed copy of the quarterly journal by regular mail.
Aims. Science Reviews - Biology aims to publish reviews and research papers in the field of biology. Our goal is to encourage scientists to publish high-quality papers that highlight advances in their respective areas of expertise within biology. To foster quality reviews and research articles, we are waiving the article processing charges per issue to the author(s) of one exceptional article, selected by the editorial board.
Science Reviews Publication Ethics Statement. In addition to rigorous peer review to ensure the high scientific standard of publications, we have a zero-tolerance policy for plagiarism and use the best available online tools to check each submitted paper for plagiarism. Please refer to our Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement for more details.
Copyright / Open Access. Articles in Science Reviews are published as open access and distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0). The copyright is retained by the author(s).
Editor in Chief - Olesa Gusachenko, PhD
Johanna Pruller, PhD. Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College, London, UK
Lucia Santos, PhD. Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Pia Steigler, PhD.University of Cape Town: Observatory, Western Cape, ZA
Science Reviews - Biology. Vol 1, issue 1, 2022
Science Reviews - Biology. Vol 1, issue 2, 2022
Science Reviews - Biology. Vol 2, issue 1, 2023
Science Reviews - Biology. Vol 2, issue 2, 2023
Science Reviews - Biology. Vol 2, issue 3, 2023
Deadline for submission of manuscripts in the October-December issue is December 30, 2023.
ISSN: 2816-9107, 2816-9115
OCLC Number: 1347230101
Deadline for submission of manuscripts in the October-December issue is December 30, 2023.
Advancements and Challenges in Gene Therapy Approaches for Sickle Cell Disease: A Comprehensive Review
Martina Rossi, PhD
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder that occurs when both
alleles of the HBB gene have mutations, leading to the production of abnormal haemoglobin (HbS). The
presence of HbS causes red blood cells (RBCs) to take on the distinctive sickle-shaped form associated with the
disease. This, in turn, leads to blockages in blood vessels, decreased blood circulation, and organs’ damage.
Traditional treatments such as blood transfusions and hydroxyurea offer relief but come with their own
limitations and associated risks. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising paradigm shift in the quest to cure
SCD, offering personalised solutions by targeting the genetic root of the disease.
This review article explores the principles and recent advancements in gene therapy for SCD. However,
before gene therapy can become the main curative strategy for this disease, several challenges need to be
overcome including the need for long-term safety and efficacy evaluations. Ongoing research and innovation
hold the promise of enhanced treatments and the potential for a widely available gene therapy, ultimately
improving the quality of life for individuals living with SCD.
Received: October 06, 2023. Revised: October 24, 2023. Published online: October 31, 2023.
Cite as: Martina Rossi, (2023). Advancements and Challenges in Gene Therapy Approaches for Sickle Cell Disease: A Comprehensive Review. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(3), 18-24.
Emerging Trends of Human Consumption of Insects and Their Future Conservation
Saboor Ahmad, PhD and Shufa Xu, PhD
In recent years, there has been a notable surge in the global interest surrounding the consumption of
insects, known as entomophagy. This trend is propelled by its potential to address various pressing challenges.
Entomophagy is deeply rooted in many cultures historically and is regarded as a sustainable solution to
contemporary problems such as food security, environmental sustainability, and public health. In this context,
this paper explores the emerging trends in human insect consumption and underscores conservation's pivotal
role in securing the future of edible insects.
This study unveils the multifaceted benefits of entomophagy by
emphasizing the cultural significance of insects as a food source, their environmental advantages, and their
potential to improve nutrition and reduce the ecological footprint of food production. Notably, various insects
such as crickets, grasshoppers, termites, mealworms, and silkworm provide the primary sources of the human
diet, including proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Simultaneously, this review sheds light on the challenges
posed by overexploitation, and habitat destruction, necessitating robust strategies for insect conservation. The
paper advocates for sustainable harvesting, habitat restoration, public education and awareness, and innovative
market strategies as critical tools for preserving insect biodiversity while promoting responsible insect
consumption. Ultimately, entomophagy and insect conservation convergence presents an intriguing paradigm
for a more sustainable and resilient global food system.
Received: September 08, 2023. Revised: October 27, 2023. Published online: October 31, 2023.
Cite as: Saboor Ahmad, Shufa Xu, (2023). Emerging Trends of Human Consumption of Insects and Their Future Conservation. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(3), 8-17.
Decoding the DNA of Scat and the Application of Genetic Methodologies to Understanding Carnivore Diet
Charlotte E. Hacker, PhD
Carnivore species are vital to ecosystem function and maintenance. One key component to understanding carnivore ecology and the most effective means of management is knowledge of dietary resource use. Traditional methods used to study carnivore diet, such as microhistology, have several technical and logistical shortcomings. These have hindered the quality and quantity of data that shape understanding of how carnivores exploit prey. Advances in genetic methodologies and their application to wildlife biology has transformed the manner in which information about species can be gained.
DNA metabarcoding is one such example. With this approach, genetic sequences present in scat can be determined via next-generation sequencing and matched to reference databases, revealing the carnivore that deposited the scat and the prey it consumed. DNA metabarcoding has the ability to overcome many of the previous challenges associated with dietary analysis and works to advance and inform current knowledge surrounding carnivore ecology, predator-prey relationships, conflicts between carnivores and humans, and potential adaptability to large-scale landscape shifts. Its use has provided novel insights on numerous carnivore species to help inform research priorities and wildlife policies, including those living in unique fragile environments such as the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China. The continued development and increased capacity of molecular dietary analysis via DNA metabarcoding has the promise to grossly improve carnivore conservation management strategies on a global scale.
Received: July 17, 2023. Revised: July 25, 2023. Published online: August 28, 2023.
Cite as: Charlotte E. Hacker, (2023). Decoding the DNA of scat and the application of genetic methodologies to understanding carnivore diet
. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(3), 1-7.
Using spore-forming bacteria to treat cancer: recent advancements in clostridial-based therapies
Raquel Rodrigues, PhD
The use of bacteria in cancer therapy has emerged as a promising approach, offering unique advantages for targeted treatment and immunotherapy. This review paper explores some recent advances in the application of bacteria, particularly Clostridium species, in cancer therapy. For instance, the Clostridial-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT) utilises non-pathogenic strains of Clostridium as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs to solid tumour cells. This strategy aims to minimise systemic side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy. Additionally, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium sporogenes present oncolytic properties and have shown potential for tumour regression in preclinical models.
The engineering of these bacteria to produce cytokines, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), further enhances their therapeutic potential by activating the immune system to target cancer cells. Clinical trials in humans have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of C. novyi-based therapies, and early results indicate potential efficacy in tumour regression. Overall, this review provides valuable insights into the multifaceted roles of bacteria, particularly Clostridium species, in cancer therapy, emphasizing their potential as targeted therapeutics and immunomodulators for improved cancer treatment outcomes.
Received: June 17, 2023. Accepted: July 21, 2023.
Cite as: Raquel Rodrigues, (2023). Using spore-forming bacteria to treat cancer: recent advancements in clostridial-based therapies
. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(2), 30-39.
The article has been granted free publication and awarded an honorarium.
Avian erythrocytes and granulocytes - a review
Ananya Bhattacherjee, PhD
This study reports on the morphology of red blood cells and agranulocytes in various types of birds,
such as rheas, emus, ostriches, chickens, and geese. Though all of them have the typical avian similarity in blood
cells, yet there are some differences.
Along with normal and mature erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes,
the present study also focuses on rubricytes, reticulocytes, poikilocytes, polychromatophilic erythrocytes,
reactive lymphocytes, pleomorphic monocyte nuclei, etc.
Received: June 19, 2023. Revised: June 23, 2023. Accepted: July 04, 2023.
Cite as: Ananya Bhattacherjee, (2023). Avian Erythrocytes and Agranulocytes - a Review
. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(2), 21-29.
All-natural 5-MeO-DMT sigma receptor 1 agonist and its therapeutic impact in mental and neurodegener-ative diseases through mitochondrial activation
Milena Batalla, PhD
The sigma-1 receptor S1R is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum ER membrane MAM, it is considered a “pluripotent modulator” in living systems, plays a critical role in maintaining neuronal homeostasis and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. Given its specific localization at the MAM, S1R plays a major role regulating mitochondrial function, it is a therapeutic target in mental and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease. N,N Dimethyl Tryptamine DMT is the S1R endogen agonists and we review the role of all-natural 5-methoxi-N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-MeO-DMT S1R agonist that produces high levels of ego dissolution or oceanic boundlessness higher ratings of satisfaction with life and lower ratings of depression and stress.
In vitro the 5-Meo-DMT shows strong modulation of synaptic and cellular plasticity in neurons. 5-MeO-DMT neuropharmacological S1R agonist is implicated in cellular bioenergetics activation, antiapoptotic and mitochondrial regulation of epigenetic landscape in neurons. S1R has been considered as a controller of cell survival and differentiation in neurons. The pharmacological benefits of all-natural 5-MeO-DMT are currently under research. This review compendia results, highlighting the key molecular mechanisms of S1Rs on mitochondrial functions and epigenetic modifications involved in the health and sickness phenotype development, and describe the possible pharmacological use of all-natural 5-MeO-DMT to “rescue” patients from sickness phenotype through mitochondrial activation. We focus on all-natural 5-MeO-DMT its clinical therapeutic implications benefit long-term effects on mental health and well-being of the patient possibly reprogramming and remodeling the epigenome, particularly in mental and neurodegenerative diseases.
Received: May 13, 2023. Revised: June 20, 2023. Accepted: June 22, 2023.
Cite as: Milena Batalla, (2023). All-natural 5-MeO-DMT sigma receptor 1 agonist and its therapeutic impact in mental and neurodegener-ative diseases through mitochondrial activation Science Reviews – Biology, 2(2), 1-20.
Bridging the gap: understanding the significance of catecholamines in neurochemistry and recent advances in
Arnab Bhattacharya, PhD
The neurochemistry of catecholamines plays a crucial and complex role in human memory, behavior,
and cognition, while affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, liver, and skin.
and epinephrine are three closely-related catecholamines that have been widely studied over the last seven
decades for development of medications for life-threatening diseases. Other studies
have also suggested a link
between drug abuse and catecholamine levels. The determination of catecholamine levels in different parts of
the human body has also been a hot topic for research in these years. HPLC, spectrophotometry, fluorescence,
electrochemistry and other techniques have been used to quantify catecholamines in mostly in biological
samples like serum and urine, although in vivo studies are also possible. This article attempts to present the
research on catecholamines from the perspectives of their bodily functions, development of medications for
diseases related to these, and the techniques used for their detection and quantification.
Received: April 04, 2023. Accepted: April 30, 2023.
Cite as: Arnab Bhattacharya, (2023). Bridging the Gap: Understanding the Significance of Catecholamines in Neurochemistry and Recent Advances in
. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(1), 20-26.
Intratumoural heterogeneity as a major challenge for cancer modelling and successful treatment
Johanna Pruller, PhD
Cancer heterogeneity refers to the fact that cancer cells are characterised by different
genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic compositions, which often confer behavioural properties, such as enhanced
drug resistance, survival and propensity to form metastasis. Modern methodology, such as single-cell
now allows a deeper look into this mechanic, and therefore a possibility to derive more efficient, new
treatments. However, cell culture approaches are commonly used to evaluate those novel approaches, and the
ability to faithfully model cancer heterogeneity is still in its infancy.
Received: March 07, 2023. Accepted: April 30, 2023.
Cite as: Johanna Pruller, (2023). Intratumoural heterogeneity as a major challenge for
cancer modelling and successful treatment. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(1), 12-19.
The article has been granted free publication and awarded an honorarium of $300.00.
Biomimetic nanoparticles for cancer targeting and drug delivery
Sahil Malhotra, PhD
Cellular membrane engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have shown immense potential for anti-cancer
drug delivery applications. In principle, cell membrane of any type of cells can be processed to obtain purified
cellular membrane which can self-assemble to form stable and highly robust nanovesicles. These nanovesicles
retain lipid-bilayer architecture of host’s cells and much of the surface biomarkers and proteins are conserved
during top-down approach.
Interestingly, nanovesicles have exhibited long plasma circulation and appreciable
tumour specific binding, which is largely suggestive of their biomimetic properties. Many pioneer studies have
demonstrated their ability to encapsulate different chemotherapeutic agents and photosensitizers of varied
chemical complexities, and releasing them in a triggered fashion. Additionally, the novel NPs system has been
developed for cancer immunotherapy. The review discusses some of the important research and applications of
cellular membrane derived nanovesicles for different forms of cancer therapy and their potential to be
developed as personalized nanomedicine.
Received: January 23, 2023. Accepted: February 16, 2023.
Cite as: Sahil Malhotra, (2023). Biomimetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Targeting and Drug Delivery. Science Reviews – Biology, 2(1), 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.57098/SciRevs.Biology.2.1.1 (The DOI link will be activated on April 30, 2023.)
Re-evaluating the role of antibodies in tuberculosis
Pia Steigler, PhD
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease found in every country on Earth. About a quarter of the global
population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, with over 10
million new TB cases reported annually. Currently, TB ranks as the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19.
Research to develop novel interventions against TB represents a global health priority. TB research over the
last several years focused on cellular immune responses, while the humoral response was largely neglected.
This mini-review discusses evidence supporting a protective role of antibodies in TB, and a potential role of
antibodies in TB vaccines and diagnosis.
Received: December 16, 2022. Accepted: January 04, 2023.
Cite as: Pia Steigler, (2022). Re-evaluating the role of antibodies in tuberculosis. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(2), 20-30.
The article has been granted free publication and awarded an honorarium of $300.00.
Therapies for sensory organ disorders
Rebecca L Bricker, PhD
Sensory organ disorders, such as visual impairment, hearing loss, and olfactory dysfunction, affect a significant percentage of the population. There are no effective therapies to restore cell damage and tissue function to these sensory organs.
Human pluripotent cells (hPSCs) have the potential to expand out to an unlimited number of cells and differentiate into any cell type of the body, and therefore have high potential to restore tissue function in transplantation cell therapies for sensory organ disorders. This review elaborates on the specific sensory cells for the vision, auditory, and olfactory tissues that were generated from hPSCs. It then describes the effectiveness of using hPSC-derived sensory progenitors in animal models of disease and what needs to be done next in order to progress.
Received: October 28, 2022. Accepted: December 09, 2022.
Cite as: Bricker R., (2022). Therapies for sensory organ disorders. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(2), 9-19.
Recognition of exosomes and their role in new technologies
Olesya Gusachenko, PhD
Exosomes or, more broadly, small extracellular vesicles are produced by all cells. They contain an array of biologically active molecules by which exosomes can influence the extracellular environment and affect the properties of other cells. Recognition of their biological role has come a long way from the mere function in the disposal of cellular waste to a concept of universal intercellular vehicle mediating near and long-distance communication in normal and pathological states.
As a result, in recent years exosomes have gained much interest in their potential exploitation for therapeutic use. This short review is aimed at presenting a brief exploration of the history of exosome recognition coupled with a snapshot of newly developing exosome-based technologies, touching upon some recent achievements and examples of application.
Received: November 05, 2022. Accepted: November 27, 2022.
Cite as: Gusachenko O., (2022). Recognition of exosomes and their role in new technologies. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(2), 1-8.
Recent insights into the use of invertebrates as indicators of habitat quality
by Rae Osborn, PhD
Invertebrates are an important part of aquatic and terrestrial systems, and are, thus, useful as indicators of environmental changes. Habitat quality can be assessed by noting changes in species composition, and relative abundances, using various indices, and by alterations in physiology and morphology of what are known as indicator species. Research shows that invertebrates can be used to indicate if habitat conditions have changed, either worsened or improved. This is why identifying indicator species is crucial. This article covers some recent findings
of how invertebrate organisms can be helpful in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in indicating ecosystem and habitat deterioration. We also discuss what makes a good indicator species and the types of taxa that have been used in this way.
Received: September 07, 2022. Accepted: September 26, 2022.
Cite as: Osborn R., (2022). Recent insights into the use of invertebrates as indicators of habitat quality. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(1), 28-32.
Recent developments in microbiology
by Claire Cummins, BSc
Research in microbiology is a dynamic and exciting field, and this review article outlines some recent significant developments within microbiology including using shotgun metagenomics to uncover the connection between diet and lifestyle and superbug infections, the current state of Ebola virus diagnostic tests, and the potential of treating superbug infections via innovative phage virus therapy as an alternative to antibiotics. This review also explores two studies using the CRISPR gene editing technique, which has been a revolution within microbiology.
The first study undergoes genetic engineering of potatoes to improve their nutritional and industrial applications, which has important implications in improving food stability as well as bolstering production. The second study utilizes CRISPR to engineer bacteria to kill themselves on command, which is important to prevent the excessive spread bacteria that are used for a variety of applications from eating plastic waste in the environment to treating the diseased human gut. Engineering these so-called ‘kill switch’ allows these bacteria to be utilized for their intended purpose without growing uncontrollably in the environment or in the gut.
Received: June 09, 2022. Accepted: August 03, 2022.
Cite as: Cummins, C., (2022). Recent Developments in Microbiology. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(1), 22-27.
CRISPR/Cas9, a decade of genome editing tools to fix the DNA
by Lúcia Santos, PhD
This year marks the 10th anniversary of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing discovery. Since its discovery in 2012, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has become an indispensable tool in many research fields. This system has been extensively characterized and further optimized to broaden its editing capabilities. Depending on the DNA modification to make, there are now available several editing agents. In this review, we provide an overview of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and how it can be used to fix the DNA using the traditional repair mechanisms non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), and the most recent gene editing approaches – base editing and prime editing.
Received: June 30, 2022. Accepted: July 14, 2022.
Cite as: Santos, L., (2022). CRISPR/Cas9, a decade of genome editing tools to fix the DNA. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(1), 15-21.
New insight into phosphoproteome research improves the in-depth understanding of honey bee biology
by Saboor Ahmad (PhD cand.) and Jianke Li, PhD
Protein phosphorylation is essential in a variety of biological activities. Notably, phosphoproteomics has opened new possibilities for honey bee biological study at the molecular and biochemical levels, considering the advancements in LC-MS/MS apparatus and computational analysis. This review extensively evaluated recent advances in honey bee biology utilizing phosphoproteomics methodologies in terms of progressive physiology, age polytheism, and biological changes in some organs, tissues, and cells. Furthermore, a comprehensive phosphoproteomic is necessary for new insight into honey bee biology, a better understanding of the research subject, and determining prospective future research areas.
Received: June 19, 2022. Accepted: July 13, 2022.
Cite as: Ahmad, S.; Li J. (2022). New insight into phosphoproteome research improves the in-depth understanding of honey bee biology. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(1), 7-14.
The article has been granted free publication and awarded an honorarium of $300.00.
Recent advances in human physiology
by Lindy Whitehouse, PhD
The study of human physiology provides important insight into the complex nature of the human body, increasing our understanding of the various systems and processes that occur to keep us alive. Developments in this field provide the basis for the development of novel treatments and therapies that are crucial for the advancement of medicine and improving the health and well-being of people around the world. Recent research into the pathogenesis of SAR-CoV-2 and the discovery of novel treatments for its symptoms have bought this field of science to the forefront.
Yet there have also been several other recent advances that have increased our understanding of the human body and provided opportunities for the development of new medicines and therapies. Here we discuss the latest advances in this field, highlighting recent progression in our understanding of cancer metastasis, the development of the brain, and the use of organoids in the study of the human body. Finally, we examine the work of two physiologists that received the Nobel Prize in 2021 for their work in understanding the mechanism behind how humans feel the heat, cold, and mechanical force.
Received: June 08, 2022. Accepted: July 06, 2022.
Cite as: Whitehouse, L., (2022). Recent Advances in Human Physiology. Science Reviews – Biology, 1(1), 1-6.